Globalization and health: Process, evidence and policy
When the literature is examined, many writers see globalization within the evolution of capitalism. they tend to explain as a new stage. Globalizationin the evolution of capitalism, those who interpret globalization They see it as a “natural” and obligatory product (Kızılçelik, 2003: 89; Erkizan 2002:70-73). Labonté et al.
They regard it as a product of their “ideological” preferences. 1970s fundamental changes in economic and political life from the beginning planned and programmed capital by an ideological choice are the products of policies.
Capital, the globalization plan since the 1970s G7 countries (Canada, Italy, Governments of France, Japan, Germany, UK and USA), World Bank, Through the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Trade Organization (WTO).
It has set. The World Bank and the IMF have received loans for structural adjustment loans. primary role in creating conditions for market dominance in countries She has played. In other words, in many countries of the world in the early 1970s widespread social state practices are not sustainable over time. not because countries can no longer support these practices, with the implementation of the capital’s plan to ensure ğ market domination ” has been eliminated.
Mechanisms of health inequalities social stratification (classification), differences in exposure to factors, vulnerability difference and different results. In this study of globalization mechanisms, and health in individuals, classes and societies.
how it increases inequalities is explained with examples. The political economy of health at first glance, such as liberalization in imports. how an application, which may seem unrelated, countries in terms of individual and class increase in health inequalities in many countries exhibited with experience:
Import liberalization → some of the sectors serving domestic markets
decrease in the income of the laborers or the informal economy of the laborers
shifts → increased social stratification (decreasing incomes or
loss of social life to lower levels) →
workers’ exposure to new health hazards → loss of income
due to labor, nutrition, housing or primary health care.
access → to sustain the livelihood of unemployed workers
having to accept working in the most dangerous jobs, in the most extreme case
having to make a living with sex work…
Standards of Evidence
As it is known, the biggest problem of public health is the When establishing a causal relationship between unhealthyness, sometimes it is almost impossible to overcome are obstacles. Delay period is quite long and many problems situations in which the agent is involved make it difficult for researchers. For example, up to half a century to prove its negative effects on health required (Davis, 2007). Today the same challenging process is mobile phones and base stations).
It is observed (Davis, 2010). False positive results of researchers (type I error) avoidance anxiety, health research can provide concrete results It hampers. We also face the same problem in proving the effects of globalization on health.
It stands out. For example, Turkey is one of the conditions imposed by the European Union negative health onsequences that may occur by in laboratory conditions where the variables are kept under control or epidemiological it is impossible to put forward with a degree of proof used in study designs.
In this case, the classic example of black sheep applies. Black sheep in nature The presence of a single black sheep is enough to prove it can be found. But in order to prove that there are no black sheep in nature, all sheep in nature one by one. Otherwise, in many cases effective measures against smoking as well as the negative effects of globalization on health. will be lost for a very long time.
Some Chapters from the Book
Cornia et al. and life expectancy at birth as a result of globalization policies implemented in 1990s improvement of time, all positive factors in this process (the end of the cold war, sharp decline in birth rates, widespread use of information and communication technologies, biomedical revolution, etc.) (Labonté et al., 2011: 46-74).
Koivusalo and colleagues in the countries of globalization, national governments how they limit their ability to produce policies that reduce social inequalities. In particular, trade agreements have a potential negative impact on health. underline the need to take measures to compensate for the effects (Labonté et al., 2011: 120-138). Lister and Labonté pressures on global health systems and health “reforms”.
health services on the road to privatization and marketization. commodity health policies (Labonté et al. 2011: 200 – 226). How Packer and his colleagues promote brain and labor migration in health of globalization these migrations, especially in disadvantaged countries. and to eliminate these negative effects. recommendations (Labonté et al, 2011: 234 – 253). Correa is an issue that is not often discussed in the public opinion.
assessing the relationship between intellectual property rights and inequalities in health; reveals how the lives of millions of people are threatened Shows. The author evaluates patent applications in the pharmaceutical industry, how globalization restricts people’s access to medical treatment and tragic results (Labonté et al., 2011: 285 – 309). Lee and colleagues discussed global governance in health and responsibility in the triangle of state, market and civil society.