Environment and Health – Part 5
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA): Determining the possible positive and negative impacts of the projects that will be realized on the environment, preventing the negative effects or minimizing them in a way that does not harm the environment, determining the alternatives and technology alternatives selected and evaluating the implementation of the projects and monitoring the implementation of the projects. The Environmental Impact Assessment Regulation, which was published in the Official Gazette dated July 17, 2008 and numbered 26939 , entered into force .
THREE PHASES OF AUDIT OF REGULATION
The purpose of this Regulation is to determine the procedures and principles of environmental supervision in the process from the commencement of the operation of the facility or activity to the protection of the environment; to regulate the qualifications and obligations of the personnel to be audited, environmental management unit / environmental officer and the companies authorized for environmental service .
Purpose of EIA :
To protect environmental values against economic policies without interfering with economic and social development , to ensure that all the negative environmental impacts of a planned activity can be determined in advance and to take necessary measures.
Benefits of EIA :
– Foresees the negative situations that may arise during the design phase and “puts the necessary measures to neutralize them and ensures that the negative effects are minimized”
-Providing cost-reducing options for the project owner,
– A more reliable, holistic and cooperative approach to the decision-making process , contributing to democracy .
Importance of environment for health
• In the report published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2006, “ Prevention of Diseases with Healthy Environment : Estimating Burden of Environmental Diseases,,
– 24% of global disease burden,
– 23% of deaths were estimated to be caused by environmental factors .
• 1.5 million deaths due to diarrheal diseases globally are reported to be caused by insufficient environmental factors such as water, sanitation and hygiene .
• in developing countries
– at least 42% of lower respiratory infections and
– It is estimated that more than 1.5 million deaths per year, which account for 24% of upper respiratory tract infections, are caused by environmental factors .
(World Health Organization report, 2006)
• Every year 2.5 million deaths due to cardiovascular diseases in the world
– air pollution,
– some chemicals,
– environmental cigarette smoke and
– environmental factors such as workplace stress .
• Significant health problems in recent years began to take place between
– Asthma and
– Respiratory diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are also associated with environmental factors.
– It is estimated that 42% of COPD is caused by environmental factors and
– airborne risk factors in the workplace , accidents, which are responsible for 12% of the global COPD burden , can be controlled through studies aimed at creating a healthy urban environment .
– Falling off the roof
– Home accidents
– Traffic accidents
More than half of the world’s population is not able to participate in adequate physical activity to prevent diseases such as heart disease, various cancers and diabetes . S ağlıkl for creating urban environments work is important in terms of public health. Ken enter the characteristics of a healthy lifestyle is supporting .