Environment and Health – Part 4
Nickel: Nickel is a silvery white hard metal. Nickel compounds are practically insoluble in water. Water-soluble salts; chloride, sulfate and nitrate. In nickel biological systems, they form complexes with adenosine, triphosphate, amino acid, peptide, protein and deoxyribonucleic acid.
As a result of inhalation of nickel compounds in the air, in relation to the respiratory defense system; respiratory tract irritation, destruction, immunological change, increase in alveolar macrophage cell number, cilia activity and decrease in immune pressure.
Skin absorption results in allergic skin diseases. Although reliable evidence has not been established on the effects of long-term exposure to airborne nickel on human health ; It has been shown to cause negative health effects such as asthma in the nickel business, as well as cancers of the nose, larynx and larynx. Due to the carcinogenic effect, it is not possible to specify the safety limit.
In addition to its biological structure, human beings have a unique cultural, cognitive and psychological structure. Human possesses a number of talents and angels that are closely related to their genetic structure and are innate, potentially energetic. Human biological, cultural, cognitive and psychological structure and characteristics can improve with the influence of the environment. Human life begins with the merging of male and female reproductive cells in the womb. One’s life in the womb may seem comfortable and safe. However, even here, problems are always seen. In other words, the new human (fetus), who obtains everything from the womb, is influenced by the psychological structure of the mother, starting from the mother’s diet. If the mother is not fed adequately and regularly, or if the mother is nervous and nervous, it can directly affect the biological, cognitive, psychological and cultural structure and behavior of the child in the womb. For this reason, when the mother is pregnant, she is asked not to get angry, to give up habits such as smoking and alcohol, to lead a quiet life, to listen to music and to speak properly for the child to develop her abilities. Because the child’s first environmental environment is the mother’s womb. The smallest negativity of the mother will affect the child’s biological, cultural, cognitive and psychological structure and development.
With the birth, the family’s nest consisting of the mother’s lap, parents and siblings forms the circumference of the baby. In time, this environment expanded beyond the family, ie the neighborhood, which consists of neighbors and relatives, and later reaches the school, city, country and world level. It is unthinkable that a human being, a bio, psycho, cultural being, is not affected by his family, friends, society and social structure. In addition, it is affected in various ways by environmental conditions such as climate, altitude, topographic, geological structure and vegetation of the environment in which it lives. It is known that human beings are affected by water, soil and air. If we expand the environment as the world and the solar system, we can easily say that the human is affected by the attraction of the earth and the moon and the cosmic rays of the sun. The combined effect of environmental factors is greater than the individual effects. For example, when family problems, disagreements among friends or school failures are added, the psychological distress they will create together will be greater. If the person who lives in such an air-polluted environment smokes in cigarettes, their negative impact on health together will increase to a great extent. All kinds of positive or negative factors in the environment in which people live will affect the anatomical, physiological, psychological, cognitive and social structure of the human being, especially the growth, development, health and performance. In other words, environmental conditions will be of primary effect on whether or not a person lives happily and in a healthy and vigorous way. In this literature study, the environmental factors affecting the cognitive (mental) and social structure of the human being will be emphasized. The Impact of the Environment on Human Health In addition to human body structure, it has a unique spiritual, cognitive and social structure that cannot be compared with any living thing. All of these together make a human. The lack of one of these is similar to a ship at the helm of the sea. Such a missing person is a potential danger both for his own existence and for the family and society in which he lives. Because one should live in harmony with himself, his family, friends, acquaintances, his country, the nature he lives in. We have all observed the disturbances and dangers caused by a person who does not have a healthy spiritual structure and cannot lead his or her normal life. We know that someone with heart or diabetes needs to be constantly under control and careful. All of this shows how effective health is for quality of life for the individual’s family, environment and himself.
Therefore, like every living thing, people have to live under certain conditions. Otherwise, he cannot work as he wants and works efficiently. Likewise, a bored, introverted person cannot have a comfortable and normal dialogue with his surroundings. At one point he is in mental distress. If the level of intelligence is low (below IQ .80), it may cause many difficulties in planning and implementing a business. Most of the time, they cannot be successful in dialogue and agreement with others. They still have difficulty analyzing events and doing the right thing. All these examples clearly show that people should be healthy and compatible with their physical, mental, cognitive and social structure. He points out that the lack of one or more of them may pose a great danger in life as well as a potential danger.
Staying Healthy and Vigorous Human genetics and the environment in which they live are directly influential in the formation and shaping of physical, mental, cognitive and social structures that make human beings human. The more positive and harmonious the interaction and interaction of these two elements are, the healthier, more vigorous and successful they are. It can be said that the environment is more important for the emergence of all kinds of features, capacities and structures of human beings due to the role of environmental factors on whether human genetic structure works or not. However, we can easily state that the environment alone would not be sufficient for a human being without a balanced and harmonious genetic structure. Therefore, we need to know that environment is not important without proper genetic structure for human and genetic structure is not important without proper environment. There is a need for a balanced and balanced genetic structure and environment for human growth, development, continuation and all kinds of successful activities. Many examples can be given; Anti-social; It is suggested that people who experience bad behaviors in childhood exhibit anti-social behaviors. A lot of research has been done on children on this subject and it is understood that this does not fully reflect the reality. According to research, gene A, which encodes the mono- amine oxidose protein, is not affected by maltreatment by overactive people, while individuals with low activity of this gene exhibit anti-social behavior both when they are maltreated and when they experience such negative events. In other words, maltreatment alone is not enough for a person to be anti-social. It should also have a low activity gene. Likewise, having inactive genes is not enough to exhibit anti-social behavior. When such maltreatment is encountered with little gene activity, it is anti-social .
Language (Language); Human is distinguished from other anthropoids by having complex grammar-based language . However, the language does not occur suddenly in the brain. Language is obtained through learning from other people who speak the same language. Learning ability is recorded in the human brain by genes that open and close a critical window in the brain during learning. It is understood that this gene is on the 7th chromosome of human chromosomes. At the same time, the child has to meet the language of speech in the critical learning age. Otherwise, he cannot fully develop his speaking ability. The same applies to most types of cancer, diabetes. In short, the majority of our characteristics and characteristics are due to the effect and interaction of genetic and environmental factors at different rates. On the other hand, human genetic structure and socioeconomic and educational level, nutrition, climate, altitude, geological and topographic structure, the influence and interaction of environmental factors such as vegetation, will, understanding (cognition), reason, ability and a number of angels such as human, thinking and existence of a mental structure that can comprehend the cause of the emergence. Human beings acquire all these abilities, comprehension and angelic characteristics with the effect and interaction of the biological, psychological and social environment of the environment they live in. The human being develops and kneads with the tradition, customs, language, religion, art and history of the society in which he / she lives and becomes an individual of that society. A person who is well-developed in terms of physical, mental, cognitive and social structure becomes a person who is beneficial not only for himself but also for his family, environment and the whole humanity.
The Impact of Environment on Mental Health Human, body, soul, mental and social structure is really human. One of the problems to be seen in one of the healthy and fully qualified people to create difficulties. Human is able to express himself and to the extent that he can fully reflect, make, show and behave his physical, psychological and social characteristics and capacities and is healthy. We can understand, describe and communicate with people who can see these features. The human environment is directly related to its physical, spiritual and social structure. The better and more harmonious the environment, the more healthy and good the physical and the spiritual and social structures are. Therefore, the harmful effects of the environment, creating a number of disorders in the body, at the same time, the spiritual structure, as well as a disturbance in the spiritual structure, will harm the body. Therefore, discomfort caused by negative environmental factors can also harm mental health. All kinds of negative environmental conditions of the place, from air, water, soil, noise and visual pollution, to communication disturbances between people, affect human biological, mental, cognitive and social structures negatively. It will be too long to explain the effects of each of these separately. There are many environmental factors that negatively affect the physical and mental health of the workplace, living and resting areas and cause low productivity in the employees. Let us take the negative effects of noise pollution, which is one of these environmental factors, in human. Noise causes many health problems including physiological and psychological.
a -Physiological Effects of Noise Today, parallel to the increasing population, noise pollution is seen everywhere, especially in cities. The increase in industrialization also plays an important role in influencing the majority of people from noise. Therefore, noise is one of the most important factors causing stress in man. Depending on the duration and intensity of the noise, the growth of the pupils in the eye causes an increase in muscle contractions, contraction of the blood vessels, and contractions in the stomach and abdomen. In the same way, it provides an increase in heart rate, causing high blood pressure. On the other hand, thyroid gland hormone, thyroxine hormone, increases secretion. It increases the secretions of adrenaline and cartizol hormones from the adrenal gland secretions and causes excitement and increases heart rate.
b – Psychological Effects of Noise People are generally affected by noise above 85dB (decibels). Persons affected by noise become uneasy, irritable and irritable. In some cases, even after the noise has disappeared, this uneasiness and irritability can continue. Exceeding the specified levels, fatigue and mental activity is seen to slow down. Such sudden increases in sound frequency can create fear in people. Continuous and loud sounds, if summarized in a sentence, cause impairments in mental functions. These include anxiety, anxiety, dizziness, fear, depression, fatigue, irritability and aggression. The source of noise is perceived differently according to the health status of the person.
For example, the sound made by a Ferrari engine sounds like music to a curious young person, while it is perceived as noise by a sick and elderly person. Air, water, soil pollution and radioactive substances, insecurity in the biological environment, apathy, lack of love, psychological environment and social relations disruptions, decreases, problems brought by industrialization, occupational and office ambitions, ruthless competition, such as negativity of the social structure of the mental health and disruptive factors. . Factors affecting this health negatively are called stressor agents in psychiatry . Stressor agents are evaluated by taking organs from the senses of sight, smell, hearing and touch, which are the windows of the human being opened to the outside world, and sent to different centers of the brain. These stressor agents, which give people a feeling of distress and tension , can affect the brain and disrupt a person’s mental health.
Changes in the balance of a number of bioamines in the brain structure and the protein structure called mediators cause mental disorders. Effects of Stressor Agents Stressor agents have specific and nonspecific effects. Excessive light, for example, acts on the cone and pine cells that receive light sensations in the retina of the eye. This disrupts the structure and physiology of the cells. Furthermore, the lens muscles and the lens itself contract or loosen so that the incident light falls into the yellow spot on the retina of the eye. The shape, intensity and duration of the light disrupt the structure of the eye lens, the lens muscles and the cells that receive and transmit light sensation in the retina, causing various eye defects. This is the specific effect of light. It is also called the nonspecific effect of light, which causes distress, numbness, irritability and even forgetfulness by causing constant and excessive stimulation of brain cells, causing strain and destruction of cells in the brain, depending on the mode of arrival, duration and intensity of light. Sensory organs receiving external sensations and stimuli, the brain and other nervous systems, especially the brain that evaluates them, and their muscles and other systems are confronted with various problems depending on the excess of the stressors and the duration of their construction. Human beings suffer from such stress all their life. No matter how healthy and strong the immune system is, it can adapt to these stresses and protect the body and mental health.
However, if the stress factor is too strong, the duration is prolonged and the body is weak, the human cannot adapt and gradually lose health. As a result, hypertension, diabetes, ulcers, heart diseases, such as psychosomatic heart diseases, as well as various mental illnesses are caught. Stress, which is the name of any source that distresses people, affects oxygen, glucose and its use in the brain and the metabolism of many bioamines (mediators) in the brain. Stress can even affect blood flow in the brain. Many studies show that stress plays an important role in the emergence of mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety and schizophrenia. In addition, the impact of the social environment on the emergence of mental illnesses is too much to be ignored . Let us explain stress and schizophrenia as an example. The Enemy of Our Health Stress All kinds of environmental conditions of the place of residence, especially workplace conditions are very important for health. Negative conditions in the workplace have detrimental and disruptive effects on body, soul and cognitive structures. For example, workplace stress significantly increases the risk of heart attack. A 14-year survey of 10,000 civil servants in the UK found that men who were more exposed to stress were twice as likely to be at risk for heart and diabetes than those who did not. In the study conducted among women, it was found that stress increases the risk of disease 5 times. Obesity, hypertension and high kolestero line, including that of metabolic syndrome, which also covers research has shown that there is a direct relationship between poor health and not under stress. Research published in the Medical Journal of the British Medical Journal, work and workplace stress and metabolic syndrome, ” how much stress a person experiences with heart disease and type-2 diabetes, causing the syndrome has been found to have more relationship. We know that there are over two thousand genetic and hereditary metabolic diseases. But more than that, the disease is caused by the influence of environmental conditions. The importance and value of the environment and environmental conditions for a healthy and happy life are indisputable. Therefore, it is necessary to remain healthy and vigorous.
However, the biggest problem of the present century is environmental pollution. Because there are great problems in the biological, psychological and social environment in which modern people live. Due to rapid population growth, rapid industrialization, excessive use of fossil fuels, excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture, living spaces have been heavily polluted. People are in various psychological distresses because they work and live in more crowded places than before. There are big breaks in social relations. All of this leads to an increasing degree of stress and distress. The incidence of Metabolic Syndrome is increasing rapidly all over the world and in our country. Adverse effects in workplace and family life increase obesity (obesity), cardiovascular diseases, fat-cholesterol metabolism deterioration, diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome. Cardiovascular diseases are 2-3 times more common and diabetes is 3-6 times more common in patients diagnosed with Metabolic Syndrome. Difficulties in workplace and family life create stress and decrease success rate and motivation. In order to avoid stress, we must devote time to our family, loved ones, children and hobbies. Reading books, walking, getting fresh air or even going up and down stairs are very good measures against stress. Stress will continue to be the greatest health problem of the 21st century unless all the stresses and distresses in the workplace and the family come to the source of solutions.
Participation and the environment have an impact on the emergence of schizophrenia (early dementia), which is seen in approximately 1% of societies today. Especially the social environment has a greater impact. Social alienation (alienation), which is considered within the social environment, is more common in industrialized countries. Social alienation is known as the difficulty in adapting to the individual’s own society and culture and in communicating. It is because of the fact that the individual cannot or does not want to adopt the cultural values of the society in which he / she lives and that he / she starts to live alone in the crowd because of the differences in his / her family, friends and acquaintances such as behavior, ideas and beliefs. One of the qualities that make a human being is that he is a social being. People should be able to establish easy dialogue with the members of the society, regardless of their age or society, be able to express their ideas easily and be delighted to be with those around them. In other words, he should be able to see himself as an individual of that society, that is, he should have a sense of belonging. There is really no situation that can harm people as much as loneliness. The feeling of loneliness is one of the most damaging mental factors that affect the mental health of people . It is particularly harmful and destructive for the elderly and children. Protection of Health A general belief in societies is that any person without pain and pain in any part of the body is considered healthy. Such a situation only indicates that the person is physically healthy. Essentially, health is only possible when one is healthy and vigorous, spiritually, physically, cognitively and socially. We can see that the mental patients do not think normal and behave normally despite the absence of any pain or pain in the body. We have all witnessed the mental and social problems of introverted individuals who cannot communicate with others in the surrounding environment or who are withdrawn, unable to express their feelings, thoughts and desires to others. Therefore, we can only call healthy individuals who are normal and intact both physically, spiritually and socially and mentally . In order to remain healthy and vigorous in all respects, stressor agents that cause all kinds of distress in the mental and social environment, especially in the living environment, must be eliminated. For this;
1-The biological environment in which a person lives must be at least under normal conditions. In this environment, all living species living in the environment, providing balance and life oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), such as the cycle of matter is required to continue. Furthermore, it is essential that there is no continuous air, water, soil and noise pollution for a healthy life.
2-We should be able to communicate comfortably with everyone we can reach with family, friends and close environment. To do this, we must try to have a self-confident, knowledgeable, talented and creative personality who are at peace with ourselves and then with those around us.
3-Since human being is a social entity, there is no such factor as damaging human beings to loneliness. We can say that a person is more effective than a drug to have healthy and positive communication with his environment. 4-The basic condition of having all of these is the genetic structure and habitable environmental conditions compatible with the living environment. The prerequisite for making environmental conditions livable is to create a knowledgeable, talented, experienced and high technological society. We must know that all this is possible with a quality life. Because it is not enough to look at our environment and everything around us. What is important is that we must be able to see, understand, level, and have what we are looking at.
As with all living things, the genetic structure and the environment in which he lives are responsible for the emergence of all kinds of characters and characteristics in human beings. Genetic structure and environment, which are the two main elements, are directly responsible for the emergence of all the characteristics and characters of human being such as longevity, health, vigor, intelligence level, body weight, height, and spiritual structure. The more harmonious and interactive these two elements are, the more healthy and quality of life the character and character of each person is. No matter what genetic and metabolic diseases occur, the quality of the life depends on the effects of environmental factors. The degree of harmony and interaction of human beings with living people and living and inanimate environmental factors is equally effective in the emergence of healthy and quality life. The role and impact of genetic structure and environmental factors on the physical, mental, mental and social health and vigor of human beings can not be discussed. Genetic structure and environmental factors are together responsible for the development of the human body and its harmonious work, the development of the human’s spiritual structure, and the establishment of positive relations with the environment and its environment. For this reason, all kinds of interventions and precautions to protect the genetic structure and environmental conditions that form the basis of human life are indispensable prerequisites of life.