Environment and Health – Part 3
CO’s Health Effects
As a result of carbon monoxide decreases oxygen carrying capacity, dysfunction occurs in the sensitive organs and tissues such as the walls of blood vessels, brain and heart due to lack of oxygen in the blood.
Health Effects of Heavy Metals
0.01-3 % of the airborne particles are composed of trace elements showing very toxic health effects. Their importance in terms of health is due to their accumulation in human tissues and possible synergistic effects. In addition to airborne particles, significant amounts of metallic particles are taken into the body by means of edible foods and drinking water .
Metals forming part of atmospheric pollution; combustion of fossil fuels, industrial processes, combustion of metal-containing products in incinerators.
Metals commonly found in the atmosphere include metals that adversely affect human health; Lead, Cadmium, Nickel, Mercury metals and asbestos are important. Some of the other metals are of fundamental importance in human life, while the concentration of others does not matter because they are not large enough to threaten human health. Any metal that may be outside of certain limits has a toxic effect on human health.
Lead: Soft metal in bluish or silver gray color. Use of organic components of lead such as tetraethyl or tetramethyl as fuel additives due to the importance of pollutant parameters. Tetraethyl lead and tetramethyl lead are both colorless liquids with boiling points of 110 ° C and 200 ° C, respectively. They increase the volatility of the fuel to which they are added because their volatility is higher than other petroleum components.
Because lead interacts with different enzyme systems, many organs or systems form focal points for lead deposition.
Adverse health effects are observed if the lead concentration in the blood exceeds the 0.2 µg / ml limit. Blood lead concentration; Inhibition of blood synthesis by exceeding the 0.2 µg / ml limit, decreased sensory and motor nerve communication speed at 0.3-0.8 µg / ml limits, and irreversible brain damage in adults after exceeding the 1.2 µg / ml limit.
There is a linear relationship between lead concentration in air and lead concentration in blood. Lead the air 1 mg / m3 concentration of the blood of 0:01 to 0:02 mg / ml concentration consisting of detection is.
Background blood lead concentration was 0.04-0.06 µg / ml in humans and 0.1 ,g / ml in urban areas.
The World Health Organization, with the aim of not exceeding the 0.1 µg / ml blood lead concentration limit where no adverse health effects are observed; the lead concentration in urban air should be targeted as 0.5-1 µg / m3.
Cadmium: Cadmium (Cd) is a silver white metal. In the air, cadmium is rapidly converted to oxide. Inorganic salts such as cadmium sulfate, cadmium nitrate, cadmium chloride are water soluble.
Airborne cadmium smoked concentration of 1 mg / m3 in case of exceeding the limit, it is possible to observe the acute effects on respiration. Due to the low excretion of cadmium from the body and accumulation, adverse effects on health are observed over time.
The organ most affected by long-term exposure is the kidneys. In the researches; If the concentration of calcium accumulated in the kidney (over the age weight) reaches 200 mg / kg, deterioration of renal function was detected . Renal damage cannot be reversed again. The effect of cadmium on the formation of lung and prostate cancers has been determined.
The World Health Organization is responsible for the cadmium concentration in the air for the protection of human health; 1-5 ng / m3 in rural areas and 10-20 ng / m3 in urban and industrial areas where agricultural activities are not available.